All organisms radiate a very low intensity endogenous electromagnetic field (EEMF) in the range below 1 Hz up to 1015 Hz, as a result of biological processes. Electrolytes moving in an organism (e.g., via the circulatory system or within cells) create an electromagnetic field. Low frequency fields are generated in cells from the alteration of protein configurations, changes in the amount of lipids, and across cell membranes due to the migration of ions. High frequency fields are generated by enzymatic peroxidation, ATP production, the Krebbs cycle, and natural luminophores in nucleic acids and proteins. These high frequency radiations from cells are what Fritz-Albert Popp has termed “biophotons” in order to emphasize their endogenous origin and substantial role in biological communication as well as the optical aspect (visible and ultraviolet light) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Biophotons are considered to be the mechanism by which intra- and intercellular communication takes place. The weak light emission (“dark luminescence”, “ultraweak” photon emission) from biological objects has been measured by photon counting techniques and has an intensity of a few up to some hundred photons per cm2 surface area per second.
The theory which inspires many current studies is Alexander Gavrilovich Gurvich’s notion of the “vectorial biological field”, or “morphogenetic field” [7]. Gurvich introduced the notion of the morphogenetic field to account for a wide range of biological phenomena from metabolic processes to the psychic sphere. Many investigators, most notably Fritz-Albert Popp and Mae-Wan Ho, have established a link between EMF and the morphogenetic field. The morphogenetic field contains the information of the whole from a part; each cell in a system is a reflection of the surrounding cell’s architecture (spatial arrangement) and each cell makes a contribution to the architecture as a whole. Popp introduced the biophoton as a contributing factor in the morphogenetic field effect. The biophoton is a high frequency photon (in the UV and visible light range) emitted by a biological object which is then received by another cell, thus facilitating intercellular communication. Multiple studies of biophoton emission from unicellular organisms up to primates demonstrate that cells are influenced by the biophotons from other cells and “respond” with their own (endogenous) biophoton emissions [2, 8]. Ho has demonstrated (with Drosophila Melaongaster embryos) that the biophoton flux may have biological significance in the synchronization of development to external light [9].


Frank Brown challenged the paradigm that circadian rhythms in organisms are linked to either sunlight exposure or tidal activity. In his experiment, oysters in an aquarium with constant light, temperature, and water levels opened and closed their shells in synchronicity with their compatriots who remained on a Connecticut beach. Then, the oysters were moved (by Brown) 1000 miles west into a light-proof box in Illinois where they were placed into an aquarium. Initially, the oysters remained on Connecticut time, but in a few weeks shifted to the would-be Illinois tidal pattern [10].
Rutger Weaver designed an experiment in which several hundred males lived in underground rooms for up to two months in an environment cut off from light, time, sound, and temperature which were initially presumed to be the normal cues of circadian rhythms. The two rooms were identical except that one was shielded from electromagnetic fields; various parameters such as sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, and urine content were charted for both groups, and both groups soon developed irregular rhythms. Those living in the shielded room became thoroughly desynchronized, while those still in EM contact with the Earth’s fields held a rhythm close to 24 hours. Next, Weaver introduced various EM fields into the shielded room, none of which had any effect save a 10 Hz, 0.025 V/cm field, which restored most of the parameters to normal [11].
These examples evidence the essential role of electromagnetic interactions in the information exchange with the environment that provides the complex adaptability of organisms.


Metabolic activity depends on the electric properties of membrane potential and environmental EM conditions [12-32]. Continuous adaptation to changing conditions, hence continuous readjustment of the parameters of the biochemical reactions inside the body, is characteristic for living matter. Any change or adjustment (with a rate exceeding a certain threshold determined by an organism’s adaptability) is considered a perturbance of the system, irrespective of whether this change is intended to cause or prevent illness. Illness in general generates this communication breakdown within the organism’s functional network. Since living beings are highly integrated open dynamic systems, wholeness in general is maintained by a permanent mass, energy and information exchange. The dynamics of communication are thusly vital for organisms.
When an organism is treated on a more general level of its functional dynamic hierarchy, it is easier to restore the physiological communication pathways within it and thus activate the endogenous healing processes. Alterations in the biophysical parameters, primarily electrophysical, occur at general levels of the organism’s functional hierarchy. Therefore, they are responsible for the very subtle intimate mechanisms of an organism’s self-regulation and interlevel communication through resonance (tissue coupling) interactions.
Every level of an organism’s hierarchy possesses a characteristic spectrum of endogenous electromagnetic oscillations originating from various processes. Intra- and interlevel resonances should occur to maintain wholeness, more or less providing correlations between these processes. From this point of view a pathology, which may be born at any level, will perturb all oscillations via wave interactions, irrespective of the origin of such waves. The distorted interference pattern of the endogenous waves of a sick organism is a reflection of its improper biochemical processes.
Electromagnetic resonance interactions between the endogenous electromagnetic oscillations of organisms are suggested to occur in living systems; however, an attempt to detect them is a rather complicated problem [33]. Nevertheless, the still growing number of therapeutic devices, which use such kinds of interactions, is elaborated on in [34-36, 75]. For example, the more than 15 years of ‘devices for bioresonance treatment’ utilization in various European clinics evidence their efficacy in the treatment of many diseases [35-38]. They are designed to use resonance interactions between endogenous electromagnetic oscillations.
Numerous positive experiences in the application of electromagnetic therapy devices makes it possible to assume that device-induced restoration of the interference pattern will renovate physiological order in a sick organism. The problem is to isolate basic processes (and the frequencies which correspond to their time scales) which are common to all levels of an organism’s hierarchy in certain frequency ranges and can thus open pathways of interlevel signal transduction.